Bach Flowers – Some history – 2. Plant names and remedy indications

In the first part of this blog we looked at the three plants Dr Bach published information on but which didn’t make it into the final system. This time we’ll look at the 8 remedies from the 1930 papers which did make it into the Twelve Healers, noting some changes in indications and plant names.

Talking about changing indications, I am mindful of Dr Bach wishing his notes to be destroyed to preserve the simplicity of the system.  In 2014, the Bach Centre republished the full version of Free Thyself with original remedy indications, with footnotes describing the final version of the remedy indications. This is now in the public domain, along with the Homoeopathic World papers.  As in the previous blog, I feel it is useful to see evidence of the process that Dr Bach went through in developing the final system and the information here is presented in this context.

As before, I mention two papers from Homoeopathic World, one in February 1930 and the other later in 1930, Free Thyself from 1932 (2014 edition) and the Twelve Healers (2011 version of definitive 1941 edition, first publication date 1933, ‘final system’ enlarged version, 1936).  Remedy names in 1930 were the first part of the plant’s Latin name (its genus).

Agrimonia eupatoria

Agrimony: In 1930, later paper, Agrimony’s first appearance, listed as Agrimonia epatoria, but after this Agrimonia eupatoria and this is the correct Latin name today.  I think epatoria was probably a typo.

Agrimonia, the inquisitor, is described in 1930 as a tormented soul, masking their troubles. They appear genial but hide their suffering within. The description has not changed and we would recognise this as someone needing agrimony today.

Cerato: Ceratostigma willmottiana used throughout – as noted in the 1941 edition of the Twelve Healers the correct species name is willmottianum.

When cerato first appears in 1930 it is described as for the fool. They seek to go forward but are unable to define right and wrong and bind themselves to stronger personalities.  They come under the influence of others and often miss opportunities.  The remedy encourages the strength and ability to keep the right path when realised. This seems pretty much what we would understand as a cerato person today and is nicely described in Free Thyself in 1932 – a cerato has inner wisdom but lacks confidence –  ‘it is only this lack of confidence in yourself, this ignorance of your own wisdom and knowledge, that tempts you to listen too intently to the advice of others’.  In a footnote to the 2014 edition of Free Thyself, the emphasis in Dr Bach’s final description on a cerato’s desire to actively ask for advice is noted.  In the 1941 edition of The Twelve Healers Dr Bach writes ‘They constantly seek advice from others, and are often misguided.’

Cichorium intybus

Chicory: Cichorium intybus, the correct Latin name, is used throughout.

In the late 1930 paper, cichorium is described as being for the egoist. Those who want to use others for their own purposes and constantly talk about themselves and their own interests. They obtain sympathy by talking about their maladies and can be spiteful if they don’t get their own way.

However, in Free Thyself, chicory is described similarly to how we would describe a centaury today – a person who wants to serve the world but instead ends up serving the few.  In the Twelve Healers, chicory is described as for those who are very mindful of the needs of others and who desire those who they care for to be near.  In the final version of the system, the idea of chicory being for the controller rather than the controlled is clear, as in the 1930 description.

Clematis: (Feb. 1930 Clematis vitalba; late 1930 Clematis erecta flora; after this date back to Clematis vitalba).  No mention of change of species in late 1930 paper.  Clematis erecta is a synonm of Clematis recta, ground clematis.  Clematis erecta flora is a homoeopathic remedy and this plant name may have been used in error in the late 1930 paper.

In the first paper in 1930, the person needing clematis has little desire for life and in some cases, wishes for death.  They are described as daydreamers.  Later that year, clematis flora is said to be for the ecstatic who makes ‘dreams their master’ and does little on the practical side.  They tend to get carried away with things, neglecting ordinary things.  In illness, they are indifferent and have no fear of death.  They have two phases – ecstasy concerning ideals and in illness, calm resignation.  The remedy brings them ‘down to earth’.

In Free Thyself, Dr Bach mentions the plant’s common name traveller’s joy, saying ‘that beautiful plant…whose feathery seeds are always longing to be blown away and start again, will help you so much to come back and face life and find your work, and bring you joy’. This emphasis is repeated in the  Twelve Healers – clematis is for the dreamer with the remedy bringing them back to the present.

Impatiens: (Impatiens roylei, late 1930; Impatiens royalei, Free Thyself 1932, Impatiens Royleii, 12 Healers; in 1941 edition, a footnote gives the correct name as Impatiens glandulifera).  Impatiens roylei is a synonm of Impatiens gladulifera, the other two names appear to be mis-spellings.  The plant is sometimes known as  Impatiens glandulifera Royle indicating it was named by botanist John Forbes Royle.  The synonmn Impatiens roylei references Royle in the species name.  This name came from Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers, a German botanist indicated by Walp. (so Impatiens roylei Walp.)

The emotional indications given in Feb. 1930 are depression and fears, while later that year Impatiens is described as The Enthusiast.  The remedy helps the person with acute mental suffering, with the intensity of suffering the important indicator.  They are trying to overcome something and suffer greatly when they fear failure.  The remedy brings peace and mental uplift.  In Free Thyself, several of the indications are associated with other remedies today, as noted in the footnotes: some cruelty and malice deep down (holly), a desire to force others to adopt your way of thinking (vine), impatience which sometimes leads to cruelty and traces of the inquisitor (suggested in footnote as holly or beech).  In the Twelve Healers impatiens is indicated for those who are quick in thought and action and find it difficult to be patient with people who are slow.  They prefer to work alone when they can do things at their own speed.


Mimulus guttatus, the plant used to make the Bach flower remedy Mimulus

Mimulus: (Mimulus luteus Feb. 1930, late 1930, Free Thyself and also the Twelve Healers, with the latter having a footnote giving the modern name Mimulus guttatus).  Today we use Mimulus guttatus, but this is not the same species as luteus.  The difference between the two is slight – luteus has large red blotches on yellow petals while in guttatus the blotches are much smaller.  In the field, for the non-specialist it would be almost impossible to tell them apart, given that we would expect a degree of variation in ‘blotch-size’ in both species – at the extremes of variation, the two species would be almost identical (if you do a search on the internet, you’ll find many images of luteus which look identical to guttatus).  However, it is likely that the species Dr Bach was referring to was guttatus as this species was widespread in the UK in 1930, including in Wales (where Dr Bach discovered it), while luteus was rare.

Mimulus luteus, By I, Hugo.arg, CC BY-SA 3.0,

In the Feb. 1930 paper, the person requiring mimulus is said to have depression and vague, unknown fears, a dislike of controversy and a desire for quietness.  The remedy helps people who are devitalised by other too powerful personalities, allowing their confidence to return and enabling them to stand up and face the difficulties of life.

Mimulus, in the late 1930 paper is described as for hate, exhaustion and, again, vague fears and a liking for quiet solitude. The remedy brings calmness, loss of fear and pity to the nature. In Free Thyself, the indications have been refined to a fear of things you can name (the person is ‘robbed of joy through fear’). The remedy is also said to encourage sympathy.  A footnote suggests the latter is now associated with other remedies, including beech. Fear (the fears of everyday life, borne silently) is the only indication for mimulus given in the Twelve Healers.

Scleranthus: (Scleranthus annuus, late 1930, Free Thyself and the Twelve Healers).

Scleranthus is described in 1930 as for the weather vane, indicated by a lack of stability, confidence and self-reliance.  They always seek the advice of others and are easily swayed.  They are nervous, restless and avoid people except when they need advice.  They swing between extremes and lack the ability to concentrate.  In Free Thyself, reliance on the opinions of others (cerato today) has been removed and scleranthus described as for those who find it difficult to make decisions.  In the Twelve Healers, the scleranthus person is said not to seek the advice of others, bearing their indecision alone.

Verbena: (Verbena officinalis – late 1930, Free Thyself and the Twelve Healers).  The remedy was called verbena in 1930 but by 1932 in Free Thyself it has become vervain, as it is known today.

In the late 1930 paper, verbena is said to be for the puritan, who has high ideals yet fails at some point to live up to them.  They are rigid and narrow-minded and try to mould the world to their own ideals.  They lack tolerance both of others and themselves (beech and/or rock water today). The remedy softens the nature and broadens the outlook.

In Free Thyself, the vervain person burns with enthusiasm but tries to force others to follow their principles (vine today) and wants the result immediately (impatiens).  The remedy brings the tolerance to better teach and lead others.  By the time of the Twelve Healers is published, the indications have been refined to for those with fixed ideas which they rarely change and which they wish to convert all around them.  They wish to teach rather than force people to follow their ideas.

What can we take from the above?  In terms of the plants, I think the confusion which can arise from plant names (impatiens) and also the difficulty in identifying subtle differences between species in the field (mimulus).

Looking at the remedy indications from 1930 and comparing with those in Free Thyself and the final version of the system shows how Dr Bach refined and fine-tuned his system throughout.  When people ask how we know the system is complete and that we don’t need to add any more remedies, this is good evidence – Dr Bach took the time and the effort to get it right before stating his work was complete.  Publishing interim versions allowed people to experience the benefits as soon as possible but his work was ongoing throughout this period.  If you have any comments, please post them in facebook.

Thanks to: Tessa Jordan for copies of the Homoeopathic World articles and Stefan Ball for providing information on the prevalence of mimulus species at the time Dr Bach was working.

References: Dr Edward Bach, Some new remedies and their uses, The Homoeopathic World, February 1930, 33-37

Edward Bach, M.B., B.S., Some fundamental considerations of disease and cure, The Homoeopathic World, (Oct.-Dec.?), 1930

Edward Bach,  Free Thyself, 1932, (2014 edition)

Edward Bach, The Twelve Healers and Other Remedies, the definitive edition, 1941

Bach flowers – Some history – 1. The discarded remedies

When Dr Bach completed his work on the remedies he destroyed most of the notes he made along the way saying that once a building is built there is no point in leaving the scaffolding in place and all that was needed would be found in ‘The Twelve Healers and Other Remedies’.

However, there is a little information in the form of two early published papers, which can give us some insight on how the system developed.  As well as academic interest, this is also important as it provides evidence of the process that Dr Bach went through before the system was completed.  It didn’t appear in some sort of mystical way but was the result of careful observation, experimentation and refinement and went through several iterations before it was complete.

In this two-part blog I’ll explore the early papers to find out more about the remedies which didn’t quite make it – what they were for and if they are used in other essence systems today.  I’ll then look at some anomalies with plant names and finally, I’ll examine the quoted indications to examine if/how they changed.

The Homoeopathic World, 1886 edition. The journal was published from 1866 to 1967. From 1933-1952 it was called Heal Thyself.

In a paper in The Homoeopathic World in February 1930, ‘Some New Remedies and their Uses’, Dr Bach offers five new remedies to the world – made using homoeopathic methods from Impatiens roylei, Mimulus luteus, Clematis vitalba, Cupressus and Cotyledon umbilicus.  Later the same year in another paper in the same journal, ‘Some fundamental Considerations of disease and cure’, he lists 11 remedies – Clematis vitalba appears as Clematis erecta flora and Cupressus has been removed, but the other 3 appear as before and in addition Agrimonia epatoria [sic], Ceratostigma willmottiana, Cichorium intybus, Erythraea centaurium, Scleranthus annuus, Verbena officinalis and Sonchus arvensis. (I don’t have exact date for this paper, other than Oct.-Dec. issue so below I’ll refer to it as ‘late 1930’).

In this later paper, only Impatiens, Mimulus and Cotyledon from the February paper are made homoeopathically, with the rest made by what we would recognise as close to the sun method – except that the mother tincture is harvested at 3 points – after 3 hours, after 4 hours and finally after 7 hours, to give three potencies.  Thus, there are still some remnants of homoeopathic preparation, which, by the time Free Thyself is published in 1932, have disappeared.

In Free Thyself, ‘Arvensis’ and ‘Cotyledon’ have been removed and Gentian, Rock Rose and Water Violet added.   First I’m going to explore the three remedies which were removed either between the two 1930 papers or between 1930 and the publication of Free Thyself.  The presence of these in other remedy systems is also investigated by searching the BAFEP Essence Database, supplemented by internet searches.

Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

Lawson cypress showing characteristic red male cones; Velela / CC BY-SA (

Cupressus (Feb. 1930, no further mentions).  A genus name for trees commonly called cypresses.  No species is identified but Dr Bach says the remedy is made from the red vessels at the tip of the leaves.  Two main species are used in homoeopathy, Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress) and Cupressus lawsonia (correctly known as Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Lawson cypress).  The male cones of  Lawson cypress have red tips so this seems to be the most likely remedy source.  In the February paper, only physical symptoms are described.

Lawson cypress is one of the Green Man tree essences (, said to help identify correct action and one’s true needs. It initiates change in the right direction and increased communication between mind and body. It gives discipline to attain one’s goals and spiritual direction.  Italian cypress is a Silvercord essence (



Navelwort (Cotyledon umbillicus); C T Johansson / CC BY-SA (

Cotyledon umbilicus, Navelwort (Feb 1930, late 1930, no further mentions).  No emotional indications are given in the Feb. 1930 paper. In the paper later that year, Cotyledon (as the remedy is called in this paper) is described as being for the hysteric. Those requiring it have emotional instability and are excitable, nervous, uncertain and lack control.  They wish to do well but fail due to their irresponsible nature.  This nature causes them anxiety.  The remedy brings calm courage and quiet determination.  Dr Bach describes it bringing the characteristics of a Roman centurion, ‘faithful unto death’.  The name Cotyledon umbilicus is used in homoeopathic medicine but this plant is now known as Umbilicus rupestris.  The leaves, with their navel-like depression from which the plant gets its common name and Latin name umbilicus, have wound-healing properties.

A Findhorn essence is made from the plant (named as Iona pennywort), said to help to penetrate the darkness by shining light on a problem that you are hiding, denying, or covering up. Light protects from darkness and also lets you see what is real and what is imaginary.  Habundia Flower Essences ( has a navelwort essence for security, safety, self-esteem. It heals the shock of the umbilical cord being cut too soon. (A link to the Doctrine of Signatures here I think – see earlier blog on this Doctrine). There is also a navelwort essence from Green Hope Farm (  Finally, a Green Man essence from navelwort is said to help release of deeply held blocks that impede greater understanding of ourselves and our surroundings (

The field milk thistle (Sonchus arvensis); By 4028mdk09 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Sonchus arvensis, Field milk thistle or sow thistle (late 1930, no further mentions).  Arvensis, as Dr Bach calls the remedy made from this plant, is for those in the depths of gloom, who feel no light, no joy, no happiness.  They are intensely unhappy and always look on the dark side of things.  They are despondent, wallow in all that is morbid and infect others with their gloom.  The remedy brings sunshine into their lives and helps them cheer others.

A Yorkshire flower essence is prepared from sow thistle. This is indicated for those who do not love themselves. Often they try to make up for this by trying to please others.*

The leaves of sow thistles were said to cure hares of madness and the milky juice was used in herbal medicine and for cosmetic use to promote clear skin.

Any thoughts on these three discarded remedies?  Add your comments to facebook.

*The BAFEP Essence Database also lists Milk thistle from Wild Medicine ( as coming from Sonchus arvensis but this isn’t specified on their website.  I’ve checked this with Sophia Knock from Wild Medicine and she’s confirmed that they use Silybum marianum (milk thistle) rather than ‘our’ plant.

Next time: In part 2, I’ll look at some anomalies with plant names and the evolution of remedy indications.

Thanks to: Tessa Jordan for copies of the Homoeopathic World articles and Sophia Knock from Wild Medicine for information about their Milk thistle essence.

References: Dr Edward Bach, Some new remedies and their uses, The Homoeopathic World, February 1930, 33-37

Edward Bach, M.B., B.S., Some fundamental considerations of disease and cure, The Homoeopathic World, (Oct.-Dec.?), 1930

Edward Bach,  Free Thyself, 1932, (2014 edition)

Edward Bach, The Twelve Healers and Other Remedies, the definitive edition, 1941

A Modern Herbal, Mrs M Grieve;

BAFEP Database:

Do emotions change through time and will they change in future?

Did our ancestors feel the same emotions we do?

The word emotion wasn’t used in the current sense until the 1830s – before then people had passions, affectations or sentiments.  But what did these feel like (and how can we know)?  And what does this mean for the use of Bach remedies in future?

Plate VII from Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. From Chapter XII: Surprise—Astonishment—Fear—Horror.

Reading some medieval history recently I stumbled on the field of the history of emotions.  While it seems obvious that the language and expression of emotions change through history (as well as across cultures), one idea is that the way we express an emotion changes the way we feel it.  So the experience of emotions themselves has changed (and will continue to change in future).

Dr Sarah Chaney, an expert from the Centre for the History of the Emotions says “The language people used to describe their feelings meant that they felt things that we can never experience. Many historical emotions are so specific to their time and place that it’s impossible for us to experience them today.”

There is no sure way to tell what someone is feeling – all we really have to go on is the words they use to describe it along with their facial expressions/body language.  When we start to try to work it out from hearing their story, or reading a historical text, we are already ‘putting our own spin’ on the situation – trying to understand them by using our own experiences.

Does this mean we should just give up on trying to understand people from the past?  Or is the answer to try to decode the historical language and the social norms or even to work around them?  One way we can avoid the trap of assuming that the words or expressions of emotions meant in the past what they do now is to avoid them altogether and only look at facts.

Pillories – a historical tool of humiliation.

A historical punishment for offending your community was to be put in stocks or pillories (sometimes with the addition of being pelted with rotten food while you’re there).  This was uncomfortable but didn’t damage the ‘victim’ physically in the long term.  The root of the punishment was humiliation in front of your peers.  Is this the historical equivalent of social media shaming, even extending as far as revenge porn?  And if so, humiliation seems to to exist historically as now (though, of course, we can’t say what it felt like).

One commonly quoted example of an emotion which no longer exists is acedia.  Described as a spiritual crisis causing depression, lethargy and despair, it was used in medieval times to describe a state felt sometimes by monks.  But while the context has changed, it isn’t clear why historians of emotions pin so much on the lack of a recognisable modern equivalent word – do they really think that the absence of this single word means that today we can’t experience the same feeling of crisis (in whatever context)?

Although it is tempting to look at people in the past as uncivilised (and sometimes even child-like) in their feelings and behaviour,  there is evidence of considerable self-control in ancient civilisations, suggesting an emotional complexity.  For example, Neanderthals shared food (rather than just keeping it all for themselves) – not the act of cartoonish savages.

Floating Heads, Sophie Cave, Kelvingrove Museum, Glasgow. Image

And to add a further complication, all emotions may not be the same – some may be more hard-wired than others e.g. fear is a basic emotion of self-preservation with a measurable physical effect.  We can identify fear throughout history, across cultures and in non-human animals.   However, the causes of fear can vary considerable with knowledge – sailors used the think their ships would fall off the edge when they reached the horizon but now know there is no need to be afraid of that!  Some other emotions may be more related to the time or place – certainly in terms of expression, or suppression.

So what about Bach remedies?  If emotions do change, will the 38 we have now need to change or be added to?  I’d suggest that the evidence for the core component of emotions actually changing is weak – not having a word for some very specific emotion doesn’t mean it isn’t experienced – only framed in a different way of expression and understanding.   Even in the years since Dr Bach wrote, we can see how much language and expression have changed – and some people today struggle with the deeply religious undertone of some of Dr Bach’s words.  So, we need to try to strip away the context to see the core of his writings.

But what about in the future – I think the above shows how important it is that we all record our experiences of using the remedies in different situations and in our native languages.  This ‘future proofs’ and ‘culture proofs’ the remedy system – by keeping our understanding of the remedies current and understandable by as wide as possible a population.  Also, it shows the importance of us reflecting back to clients – we may see remedy indications but we can’t ever truly know how a client feels, so ensuring the best remedy selection has to involve discussion with them of the remedy.

A final thought – I wonder if remedy choices have changed since Dr Bach’s time – as the first 3 remedies were mimulus, clematis and impatiens, does this mean these were the most needed at that time?  Nelson’s rank remedies by sales (or used to) and their ‘top 3’ recently were white chestnut, mimulus and larch.

I’d love to know what you think. Post your thoughts on facebook.

Further reading:

How we used to feel,

Barbara H Rosenwein; Worrying about emotions in History, American Historical Review, 2002;

Dr Bach and Cambridge

When the Bach Practitioner Conference visited Cambridge in 2019, with the theme ‘Making Connections’, I thought it would be an ideal time to investigate the connection Dr Bach had to Cambridge.  All I knew was that he had ‘a Diploma in Public Health from Cambridge’ but no idea what this was or what it involved.  I started by contacting the current Institute of Public Health at Cambridge University and they were able to provide some background about public health and how a post-graduate course came about.

Dr Edward Bach

The young Dr Bach

Before the National Health Service in the UK, doctors’ income came from payments from individual patients but in the mid-nineteenth century, discussion of the need for medically trained people to look at the ‘bigger picture’ began.  Leading this was Henry Wyldbore Rumsay, a physician and writer.   He envisaged a new type of medical professional – a state doctor.

The range of things they might be called on to do included the investigation of epidemics, providing medical care for the poor, looking after the welfare of factory workers, registering vital events and carrying out sanitary investigations.  Providing forensic evidence to court and monitoring the quality of food, drinks and medicines and inspecting hospitals and asylums could also form part of their role.  They would need a wide range of expertise and also be paid by the state, so a programme of education, ending with a certificate of competency, would be required.  State medicine, as the field became known, began to be offered as a subject to Cambridge medical graduates in the 1860s and from 1875 the examinations in public health became available to graduates of other universities.

The masters-level course offered had changed little by the time Dr Bach was studying.  Cambridge University Library were able to provide the course details from the 1914 University ordinances.  Topics covered included:

Physics and chemistry (including analysis of air and water, pneumatics, hydraulics and hydrostatics with reference to drainage, ventilation, water supply and construction etc.)

Laws related to public health

Sanitary statistics

Epidemics and infectious diseases

Effects of over-crowding, vitiated air [air which is not fresh and has reduced oxygen content], impure water, bad or insufficient food and unhealthy occupations and associated diseases.

Water supply and disposal of sewage and refuse

Nuisances injurious to health

Distribution of diseases in UK and the effects of soil, season and climate

The examination consisted of two papers and candidates passing both were awarded a Diploma in Public Health, qualifying them for the post of Medical Officer of Health.

Dr Bach was awarded his Diploma in October 1914.   Unfortunately, the University don’t have any more details specifically relating to Dr Bach.  Stefan Ball at the Bach Centre suggested Dr Bach did the course by correspondence while working.  I think I read something written by Nora Weeks saying Dr Bach suffered a bout of ill-health during 1913.  Perhaps it was down to all the extra work he was doing for his Diploma!

Old Addenbrookes Cambridge

Judge Business School, Cambridge

Up until the 1950s, the Cambridge Medical School was housed in Old Addenbrookes Hospital on Trumpington Street.  When the Hospital relocated to a bigger site, some of the old site was converted and now houses the Judge Business School.

While it would have been great to have been able to find out more, I think the details of the subject matter covered by the course indicate an interest in medicine for all – which fits very nicely with Dr Bach’s gift of the knowledge of the remedies for use by everyone over 20 years later.


R.M. Acheson (1986); Three regius professors, sanitary science, and state medicine: the birth of an academic discipline; B.M.J., 293, 1602–6

Ordinances of the University of Cambridge, 1914 , 471–4

Thanks to:

Jacqueline Cox, Keeper of the University Archives, Cambridge University Library; Professor Carol Brayne, Director, Cambridge Institute of Public Health and Stefan Ball at the Bach Centre.

A version of this blog was published in the Winter 2019 edition of the Bach Practitioner Bulletin (no. 102).

Medieval Medicinal Plants #2

In this second blog on medieval medicinal plants, I’ll talk about leprosy and plague then look at the use of plants in anaesthesia and to treat other conditions.

One disease synonymous with the medieval period is plague, which caused terror throughout Europe.  It had no cure and was believed to be a punishment from God.  The major outbreak in Europe which lasted from about 1346 to 1353, killed up to 50 million people – about 60% of the population.  Early in the outbreak, there were reports of people abandoning stricken family members, including children although later, efforts turned more to prayer.  The best chances of survival were in places operating strict quarantine policies.

A bishop instructing clerics suffering from leprosy from Omne Bonum by 14th-century clerk James le Palmer (British Library, MS Royal 6 E VI, vol. 2, fol. 301ra).

Leprosy was another disease which terrified people.  Believed to affect those guilty of lechery or immoral sex, sufferers were often shunned and exiled to the edge of the town.  We now know it is caused by a severe bacterial infection.

In medieval times it was believed that when you die you entered purgatory, where you paid for all your sins before moving on. Sufferers from leprosy, on the other hand, were paying for their sins early so were already on their way to redemption.  Thus, Christian benefactors could gain from helping lepers and asking them to pray for them in return as their prayers held more weight!

While plague and leprosy couldn’t be cured, there were effective treatments available for some things, including respiratory conditions.

A sweet confection incorporating the juice of horehound (Marrubium vulgare) was used to treat coughs and horehound is used today in herbal medicine to treat asthma and bronchitis.  Marrubiin, one of its constituents has shown a number of medicinal effects including as an antispasmodic and analgesic.

Herbs were also used in medieval anaesthetics taken before surgery, notable dwale which was drunk with wine.

Chemical diagram of lactucin

Dwale contained hemlock, opium and henbane, all of which have pain-killing or sleep-inducing properties.  Wild lettuce was also included – this was a source of lactucarium or lettuce opium, known to make you drowsy (as described by Beatrix Potter in the Tale of the Flopsy Bunnies).  The sedative effects are down to the compounds lactucin and lactucopicrin, also present in the Bach remedy plant chicory.

Wild neep (or bryony) was added – there are 2 suggestions as to what the purpose of this was – firstly, it was a direct replacement for mandrake, used in Middle Eastern recipes, but not available (or too expensive) in northern Europe.  Mandrake was used to improve sexual function of men, so was highly prized (and so expensive). Bryony had similar, fleshy roots and was sometimes known as English mandrake.   An alternative suggestion is that bryony’s inclusion was for its purgative properties, which we now know come from the compound bryonin.


Bryony (Bryonia dioica); image AnRo0002 via wikimedia commons

Hemlock, henbane and opium could all be toxic. Due to the variability in quantity of the active compounds in a given plant even when the mixture was carefully prepared, the effects were unpredictable – it was therefore beneficial to remove the mixture from the body quickly!  Other ingredients in dwale were bile, possibly to speed up absorption, and vinegar.  After surgery, vinegar was dabbed on the face or dill seeds put in the nose to bring the patient round.

Rather than drinking an anaesthetic, so-called soporific sponges could also be used.  These were soaked in a macerated mixture of opium, mandrake, hemlock and henbane.  When the sponge was needed it was soaked in hot water and the fumes inhaled.  Patients not only slept through the operation, but for several hours after, giving their bodies some time to recover from the trauma of surgery.  A sponge soaked in hot vinegar or dill seeds were used to bring the user round after the operation.  These sponges were an early example of inhalation therapy.

So, while knowledge of anatomy and what caused disease was limited, there were treatments available for certain conditions often with plants.  And today, some of these plants  have been shown to have beneficial effects.

Sources: Toni Mount (2016); Medieval Medicine Its Mysteries and Science; Amberley Publishing, ISBN 978 1 4456 5542 0

O.K. Popoola, A.M. Elbagory, F. Ameer, A.A. Hussein (2013); Marrubiin; Molecules, 18(8), 9049–9060;

J. Robertson (2018);

A.J. Carter (1999); Dwale: and anaesthetic from old England; BMJ, 319(7225), 1623–1626; 

Gwenda Kyd (2018); The Plants of Dr Bach; Vervain Publishing

Medieval Medicinal Plants #1

A few months ago, I researched a talk on medieval medicinal plants to give in the Leper Chapel in Cambridge at a re-enactment of Stourbridge Fair.  The Fair was for a time the largest in medieval Europe.  Although many of the ideas about health and healing seemed odd, medieval medics did use a significant number of plants which today have proven beneficial effects.

In this two-part blog, I’ll give a brief overview of medicine and disease in medieval times and mention some of the plants used.

The medieval world had different kinds of medical expertise available: physicians – university-educated and associated with the Church so forbidden from cutting a patient; barber-surgeons – cutters; apothecaries – remedy-makers who could also diagnose; and ‘wise-women’ – no formal training, but lots of knowledge!

A medieval urine wheel; image reproduced from ancient origins blog (details below)

Formal diagnoses were often made by considering the colour, quantity, smell and sometimes taste, of a patient’s urine.  Charts (so-called ‘urine-wheels’) were available for comparison.  The pulse was also compared with what was considered ‘normal’.

The body was believed to be made up of four humours – phlegm, yellow bile, black bile and blood. Black bile was thought to come from the kidneys and spleen and lead to melancholy. Illness was due to an imbalance of the humours and treatment sometimes involved expulsion of the excess. As blood was the most important of the humours, blood-letting (carried out by a barber-surgeon, in which up to a quarter of the blood from the body was removed) was common but purgatives and emetics were also used.

Knowledge of anatomy was limited and usually based on the dissection of pigs – as they were the same size as a man it was thought they would have the same anatomy.  However, the mystery illness known as right-sided sickness was a mystery because pigs don’t have an appendix!

Disease was believed to be a caused by exposure to foul air.  Whooping cough, or the 100-day cough, arose if a child was close to dying flowers, particularly orchids.  Strewing herbs and nosegays were commonly used.  These were spread on the floor of homes and released a sweet smell when walked on.  Herbs used included sweet woodruff and lavender.  As well as smelling nice (so keeping foul air at bay), some of the herbs repelled insects (which we now know would have a beneficial effect by reducing insect transmission of disease).  Similar herbs were used in nosegays – small bunches of fragrant herbs held close to the nose to reduce exposure to foul air. If you had to speak to a person who was ill, it was recommended that you stood upwind.

Wood betony (Stachys officinalis); image from

Medieval herbal medicine was most successful in the treatment of relatively minor complaints such as headaches.  One suggested treatment involved using a poultice made by boiling barley with betony  (Stachys officinalis) and vervain (Verbena officinalis).  Both betony and vervain are still used today to treat headaches.  Betony has proven anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, with active compounds including trigonelline and stachydrine.  Considered to be a ‘magic bullet’ and used to treat dozens of conditions, a medieval Italian proverb urged, ‘Sell your coat and buy betony’.

Vervain was used for the treatment of about 30 different complaints, including fevers and as a poultice it was used for rheumatism, earache and to treat piles as well as for headaches.  As the poultice stained the skin red, it was thought to be drawing blood from the body (so balancing the humours without blood-letting).  It was sometimes known as Herb of the Cross as it was said to have been used to staunch the wounds of Christ or Simplers’ Joy.  Simplers were people who collected herbs and sold them to apothecaries.  Extracts of vervain show sleep-promoting, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.  One of its important constituents is verbascoside.

Next time, I’ll look at two diseases which terrified the medieval population and plant-based anaesthesia.

Sources: Toni Mount (2016); Medieval Medicine Its Mysteries and Science; Amberley Publishing, ISBN 978 1 4456 5542 0

Wu Mingren (14th March 2018); The Urine Wheel and Uroscopy: What Your Wee Could Tell a Medieval Doctor; Ancient Origins,

Mrs M. Grieve (1931); A Modern Herbal; Merchant Book Company Ltd, ISBN 1 904779 01 8

David Hoffmann (2003); Complete Illustrated Guide to the Holistic Herbal; Element Books, ISBN 0 00 713301 4

Gwenda Kyd (2018); The Plants of Dr Bach; Vervain Publishing

Bach flower remedy plants…and wine.

Over the summer I visited a vineyard in Kent and it got me thinking about how the Bach remedy plants contribute to wine-making.  Obviously, grapes come from vine, but there are a surprising number of other remedy plants that are also vital to the process.

Grape vine, fruit and wine

Wine, made from the fruit of the vine (Vitis vinifera); image from

Wine-making goes back at least 6,000 years – the first wine may have been a happy accident.  Grapes provide sugar and juice, and fungus on the skins can kick-start fermentation, so perhaps someone eating a partially fermented grape had a light-bulb moment and the rest is history!  Traditionally, grapes were crushed by trampling with the feet, so the process may have benefitted from the presence of fungi on the feet.

Today we know that grape skins and seeds contain compounds which are good for heart health and fight the spread of cancer, like resveratrol.  As red wine is made by fermenting grapes with their skins on, it has more potential benefit than white. But resveratrol is inactivated in the gut and liver so, rather than gulping the wine, sipping it slowly will help maximise absorption.  Sipping allows resveratrol to pass through the mucous membranes in the mouth and can increase absorption into the bloodstream 100-fold.

But what other plants are used in a vineyard?  You might also see roses – sometimes planted at the end of each row of vines and sometimes in small groups distributed throughout the vineyard.  It turns out that roses are susceptible to the same diseases as vines, particularly the fungal infection mildew.  The roses act ‘like a canary’, providing an early warning to winemakers who can then treat the vines to prevent them becoming infected.[1]

Oak barrels; image from

Traditionally elm trees were grown in vineyards to shade the vines and provide support for them to climb on.  The first English elm (Ulmus procera) in the UK is believed to have been brought by the Romans for this purpose.  Every English elm in Britain is thought to be a clone of this tree, which has had disastrous consequences.  The lack of genetic variation has made the species almost powerless to resist Dutch elm disease – current estimates suggest over 25 million trees (of a population of 30 million) have been affected in the major outbreak beginning in the 1960s.

Oak wood barrels are used during the fermentation and ageing stages of winemaking to affect the colour, flavour and texture of the wine, the effects depending on the species used and where it was grown.  In Europe, Quercus robur, the species used to make the Bach remedy, and Quercus petraea are commonly used.

Cork wine bottle closures, ‘corks’; image from

Finally, when the wine is ready to be bottled, another oak cousin (Quercus suber) might be used to provide corks.  Although corks have recently been widely replaced by plastic or aluminium closures, they are much more environmentally-friendly.  Their production releases 25 times less greenhouse gases than aluminium caps and 10 times less than plastic ones.

Chemical diagram of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, TCA, the main cause of corking

One issue with using corks can be ‘corking’ of the wine.  This is caused by a chemical compound called tetrachloroanisole (TCA).  It is produced by fungi acting on chlorophenols present in pesiticides and wood preservatives and makes the wine taste and smell unpleasant. But the good news is so-called cork taint can be easily removed at home.  Just pour the wine into a bowl with a ball of clingfilm (made of polyethylene (PE)…check it IS made of PE) and swirl around for 5-10 minutes.  The PE mops up the TCA and leaves the wine tasting as it should again.[2]

So next time, you’re sipping a glass of wine spare a thought for all the plants that have contributed!

Sources: Gwenda Kyd, (2018); The Plants of Dr Bach; ISBN 978-0-9928998-1-3

[1] Clémence Leberche, (27th July 2017); The Winalist; Why are roses planted in vineyards?

[2] Harold McGee, (13th January 2009); The New York Times; For a Tastier Wine, the Next Trick Involves …

Next time: Medieval medicinal plants


The Language of Bach Flowers

A few months ago, I was giving a talk about the Bach remedies, describing how the remedies are made…and mentioned the energy of the flowers being transferred to the water.  At this point, someone in the front row interrupted and challenged me on what exactly was transferred….energy is a measurable thing so can it be measured?  And if not, then how could I say something was transferred?  One of the ‘joys’ of living in Cambridge is the large number of scientists ready for a ‘lively discussion’!   After several minutes I did manage to get on with the talk, but it did get me thinking about the language we use to talk about the remedies.

Bach flower essences

Bach flower remedies…but what are they made of? image

The problem is, while the effects of the remedies are obvious to us, anecdotal evidence is not going to convince a cynic – so saying they work in a reproducible way is not enough to prove something is transferred from the flower.  Nor is anything that sounds pseudo-scientific.  So, in this blog I thought I’d have a look at a few of the words we use to describe what the remedies are made of.

Let’s start with the word that got me into bother…ENERGY.  The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) defines energy as ‘the strength and vitality required for sustained physical or mental activity’, or more scientifically ‘the property of matter and radiation which is manifest as a capacity to perform work’. The important thing is energy is a measurable quantity.  If we can’t (or haven’t) measured transfer of energy from flowers to water, then can we say energy is involved?  There is clearly the transfer of something – the water we put the flowers onto often changes colour, so something chemical IS transferred and with this will be energy (as where there’s mass there must be energy).  But this isn’t really what we mean (and in any case by the time the mother tincture is made then further diluted, any quantity of chemical compounds originating from the flowers will be minimal).

Energy is also used in other contexts – e.g. the energy of the room changes when X comes in.  I think most of us have experience of this – when, without saying or doing anything, a person can make a place feel different just by being there, but it’s impossible to quantify and is it good enough to use to describe what’s in the remedies?   There’s a whole area of complementary therapies based on ‘energy healing’ and I guess we use the word energy the way they do – an unmeasurable but tangible force which can affect anything it comes into contact with.  But while this is fine if you’re talking to people open to this way of thinking it probably won’t ‘cut it’ with someone more cynical.

flowers energy

Impatiens glandulifera

Another issue with energy, if you use the analogy of X changing the energy of the room, is that each person has a different effect (energy) i.e. we’re all of the same species but have a different effect on the energy and yet, but when we’re making remedies I think we’d say e.g. that all Impatiens glandulifera flowers would produce Impatiens flower remedy with the same energy.

If energy can be troublesome, what about ESSENCE.  I do like is – it puts across the idea of it being the important part of the flower which is used.  And it’s not a word which is used often otherwise.  Except perhaps in food flavourings, but even the use of essence in e.g. vanilla essence,  use doesn’t contradict our use. OED defines essence as ‘The intrinsic nature or indispensable quality of something, especially something abstract, which determines its character.’  Sounds good!

Another possibility is VIBRATION…or sometimes vibrational energy.  This has the same issues as energy…in this case OED defines as ‘An oscillation of …an electromagnetic wave’ (a measurable quantity).  However, a further, informal definition is given for vibrations – ‘a person’s emotional state, the atmosphere of a place, or the associations of an object, as communicated to and felt by others.’ It does feel a bit 1960s (think ‘Good Vibrations’) but it does work pretty well.

Bach flowers energy

A representation of energy or vibrational fields; image

Where does this leave us?  Well, I think the important things are to pick what we feel comfortable using but most importantly, be ready to explain what we mean with an appreciation that our chosen words may have other meanings or connotations to other people.

As for me, my experience with my heckler made me wary of using the word energy but after thinking about it I think all 3 of the above options have merit.   What do you think?  Comment on Facebook and maybe we can have our own ‘lively discussion’!

Source: Oxford English Dictionary,

Bach flower shapes and energy

Could the energy of a flower essence be reflected in the shape of the plant’s flowers?

A few years ago, I heard a talk which suggested this.  I can’t remember the name of the speaker but she linked various flower essence systems together through flower shape.  It’s an interesting idea and, if true, could be useful if, for example, we find ourselves somewhere we can’t access Dr Bach’s remedies or plants and we could select from the local flora based on flower shape.

So I thought I’d have a look at this in a vaguely systematic way.  I took the Australian Bush essences and used a list of their indications to map them to the closest Bach remedy (or often remedies).  Currently there are 66 Bush essences that come from single flowers, some of which are very specific or relate to the physical or metaphysical (for example, Mulla mulla for fear of flames and heat; She oak indicated for female imbalance and Angelsword for spiritual confusion).

Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum); image from

For those which related to emotional states, I compared photographs of the flowers from the Bush Flower Essences and Bach Centre websites and if this didn’t give a clear answer, from internet searches of the species’ botanical names.

Fringed violet (Thysanotus tuberosus); image copyright ABFE




It proved to be good revision of indications for me!  But what about the flower shapes?  The example which was given in the talk linked Star of Bethlehem with Fringed violet (one of the indicators for this is shock).  The photos look convincing, with each having flowers with six narrow petals but is it just a coincidence?

The table shows the results from the 20 best matches of indications, other than Star of Bethlehem/Fringed violet and my comparison of flower shapes (flower shape similarity, Fss).

Bush flower essence Bach remedy Common indication(s) Fss
Billy goat plum

Black-eyed Susan


Dog rose•

Dog rose of the wild forces

Grey spider flower

Gymnea lily



Kapok bush

Mountain devil

Red grevillea

Red lily

Southern cross

Sturt Desert pea

Sturt Desert rose


Sunshine wattle

Tall yellow top

Yellow cowslip orchid

Crab apple


White chestnut


Cherry plum

Rock rose


Chestnut bud


Wild rose





Sweet chestnut




Water violet


Unable to accept physical self


Obsessive thoughts

Fearful; shy

Fear of losing control


Dominating, over-riding personality

Inability to learn from past

Changeable; dithering


Hatred; anger

Affected by criticism and other people

Daydreaming; lack of focus

Complaining; victim mentality

Deep hurt; emotional pain


Daydreaming; vagueness

Stuck in the past

Isolation; loneliness

Critical; judgemental





















*Dog rose of the wild forces has 6 petals compared to 5 for cherry plum, but otherwise, there is a slight similarity in shape.

**Isopogon is slightly bud-like.

***Kapok bush flower petals are the same shape as wild rose flower petals, but narrower.  There are the same number of petals in each.

•Dog rose Bush flower essence is from Bauera rubioides not Rosa canina (from which Bach Wild rose is made).

There are three flowers where there appear to be some similarities with the Bach flowers, the most similar being Kapok bush and Wild rose (Rosa canina) – see photos below.  Kapok bush/Wild rose is fairly convincing but I would have expected more if the link was any more than coincidental (there aren’t that many potential shapes of flowers!)

Not in any way a comprehensive or exhaustive study, but I can’t find any compelling evidence that there is a link between flower shape and the indications for the remedy (and by implication, the energy of the flower).

What do you think?  Have you found any examples, either among the Bush flower essences or any of the other remedy systems, where the flowers seem similar to the Bach flowers? Post comments on facebook.

Kapok bush (Cochlospermum fraseri); image copyright ABFE

Rosa canina

Dog rose (Rosa canina); image from









Australian Bush Flower Essences info sheet; Bush Biotherapies Ltd

The Plants of Dr Bach (

Bach Flower Remedies and the Doctrine of Signatures

Dr Bach described himself as a herbalist and he had a knowledge of plants and medicine gained from talking to folk healers as well as from personal study.  What, then, was the influence of ideas central to herbal medicine in his discovery of the 38 flower remedies?  We can speculate (in the absence of any definitive knowledge!) and in this blog I’d like to consider the possible influence of one idea known as the Doctrine of Signatures.

Today this is much mocked by sceptics, but it undeniably contributed to the shaping of herbal medicine as we know it now, as well as to the discovery of some drugs used in conventional medicine.  The Doctrine stated that God had marked some plants to tell us how they could be used – the leaves of lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalislook like diseased lungs and so were used to treat lung diseases; the structure of the eyebright (Euphrasia officinalisflower resembles an eye so the plant was used to treat eye conditions, etc. [1]

Doctrine suggested seed heads linked to teeth

Henbane seed heads; image courtesy of Jenny Humphrey

It was popularised by the Swiss physician Paracelsus (1493–1541) but there is evidence of its importance throughout the history of medicine.  Henbane (Hyoscyamus spp.) was smoked by the Ancient Egyptians to treat toothache – perhaps as a result of the seed heads looking like a row of teeth.  In fact, henbane contains hallucinogenic compounds including scopolamine which would cause users to forget their toothache for a while, even if it didn’t cure the pain permanently! [2]

The Doctrine was key to the writings of William Coles, a contemporary of Nicholas Culpeper but, in contrast, Culpeper believed in the astrological properties of plants.  However, even Culpeper succumbed to the idea that every plant had a purpose – writing on honeysuckle that chewing it did not help a sore mouth he said, “If it is not good for this, what is it good for? It is good for something, for God and Nature made nothing in vain.”[3]

Other aspects of the Doctrine were the idea that plants grew where they were needed and that their behaviour could also guide us to their medicinal effects.   The former was important in the decision of Rev. Edward Stone to try taking willow bark to treat his agues (willow is abundant in damp conditions where agues (with malaria-like symptoms) were common). Initially, the effect of Stone’s allusion to the Doctrine was to make physicians sceptical of his report of the bark’s effects, but his work led eventually to the discovery of the drug aspirin.[2]

But do the sceptics have a point?  It’s easy to select examples either to support or dismiss the Doctrine.  However, faced with finding a plant to treat a specific condition from the thousands available, where would you begin?  At least the Doctrine provided an arguably logical starting point.  And if healers tried a plant and it didn’t work they would move onto something else (a bit like pharmaceutical companies do today with potential drugs).   In some ways this mirrors Dr Bach’s discoveries – he carefully observed the nature of plants (shown in part by their behaviour?) but also tried many plants and discarded those which did not show the desired effects.

Juglans regia

Walnut: hard shell or hard hat?; image Mo sibbons

I’ve had a think about the Flower Remedies to see if there are any whose indications might have been suggested using the Doctrine.  Some are obvious… aspen with its quaking leaves suggesting anxiety; chestnut bud’s sticky coating suggesting mistakes that are difficult to throw off; walnut’s hard shell giving protection; water violet standing proud and alone in ponds and impatiens, impatiently firing off its seeds explosively.

What do you think?  Any more examples?  Post them on facebook here


[1] Science Museum;

[2] G.Kyd, M. Sibbons, (2013); Molecules Medicines and Mischief: A Year on the Chemical Trail around Cambridge University Botanic Garden; link to book info.

[3] T. Breverton, (2011); Breverton’s Complete Herbal; Quercus Publishing Plc, ISBN: 978-0-85738-336-5, p176